Thursday, March 23, 2017

Week 6 - Leadership Theories and Styles and connected learning

Connected learning
If “Connected learning is about much more than plugging youth into technology.” Then what is connected learning?

Due to the rapid change and technological advancement, the demands and opportunities placed on our students are greater than ever. Constantly changing networks (personal, social, and work) challenge students to process, learn, and respond to torrents of new information and new technologies. Learning is no longer framed by restrictions of time and place. Knowledge is now available everywhere, 24 hours a day so new models of education need to recognise learning as a constant with delivery modes and learning times as the variables.
New education models are needed to expand learning beyond the school through connected networks that bring education opportunities together into a seamless, integrated experience. In 2016 there is no reason why the abundance of resources and knowledge on the internet should be contained within a physical classroom, and there is little reason why a student should be confined to only taking courses offered by their school.
The notion of ensuring interchange and integration of learning networks and of the resources should underpin the construction of new education models. Connected learning and connectivism are two complementary views of the power of the network in 21st century learning

Leadership Theories
As time has progressed a number of leadership theories have emerged which deal with various styles and methodologies about leadership. These theories could be labelled in four broad headings; namely the Trait theories, Behavioral theories, Contingency theories and the Power and Influence theories. In 1922, Max Weber (see Weber, 1978) identified three kinds of leader/follower relations; traditional, bureaucratic and charismatic. He also noted that they occur in combination, and there may be gradual transitions between these types. Since then, much has been written about types of leadership. Some examples of leadership theories relevant to education include
Servant Leadership
Pedagogical Leadership
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Maori Leadership

Burns (1978) outlined the original ideas for both transactional and transformational leadership. He stated that both are 'moral' forms of leadership, as opposed to 'amoral' power-wielding.

Bass & Riggio (2006) developed their transformational leadership theory based on Burns' original ideas. This has been the one many of our students have found interesting to reflect upon in their Leadership 1 assessments. According to this theory, transformational leadership can be defined based on the impact that it has on followers.

Providing a different perspective, Tū Rangatira: Māori Medium Educational Leadership (Ministry of Education, 2010) presents a model of leadership that reflects some of the key leadership roles and practices that contribute to high-quality educational outcomes for Māori learners. It focuses on leadership practices, providing insights into how effective professional development programmes can work towards strengthening leaders’ capabilities, growing capacity and sustaining exemplary leadership in the Māori medium education sector.

Leadership StylesDuring this week's lesson we'll also introduce some views on different leadership styles. Keep in mind that the styles are often drawn from the theories, so from your assessment point of view get your justifications from the theories and link them to the styles you used.

Complete the University of Kent online quiz about your typical leadership styles When you have finished record your results and thoughts for later use (Leadership 1 & 2 Assessments).

Based on a three-year study of over 3,000 executives, Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee (2013) identified six different leadership styles
Pace-setting leaders expect excellence and self-direction, and can be summed up as ‘Do as I do, now’. The Pace-setter very much leads by example, but this type of leadership only works with a highly-competent and well-motivated team.
Authoritative leaders move people towards a vision, so are often described as ‘Visionary’. This style is probably best summed up as ‘Come with me’. It is the most useful style when a new vision or clear direction is needed, and is most strongly positive.
An Affiliative leader values and creates emotional bonds and harmony, believing that ‘People come first’. Such leaders demonstrate empathy, and strong communication skills, and are very good at building relationships. This style is most useful when a team has been through a difficult experience, and needs to heal rifts, or develop motivation.
The democratic leader builds consensus through participation, constantly asking ‘What do you think?’, and showing high levels of collaboration, team leadership and strong communication skills. This style of leadership works well in developing ownership for a project, but it can make for slow progress towards goals, until a certain amount of momentum has built up.
A coaching leader will develop people, allowing them to try different approaches in an open way. The phrase that sums up this style is ‘Try it’, and this leader shows high levels of empathy, self-awareness and skills in developing others. A coaching style is especially useful when an organisation values long-term staff development
Coercive leaders demand immediate obedience. In a single phrase, this style is ‘Do what I tell you’. These leaders show initiative, self-control, and drive to succeed. There is, of course, a time and a place for such leadership: a battlefield is the classic example, but any crisis will need clear, calm, commanding leadership. 

Leadership Attributes
There are many personal characteristics that may be identified as aspects of leadership. However it may be helpful to explore some of the attributes identified within various categories that we have introduced on the course previously. These include:
Key Competencies (e.g. relating to others)
21st Century Skills (e.g. real-world problem-solving and innovation)
Growth Mindset (e.g. resilience)
Adaptive Competence (e.g cultural awareness)
Emotional intelligence (e.g. social skill)
World Economic Forum (2015) character qualities (e.g. initiative)

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